Poliomyelitis, or polio, is a paralysis or paralytic disease caused by viruses. Carrier agent, the disease is a virus called poliovirus (PV), enters the body through the mouth, infecting the intestinal tract. The virus can enter the bloodstream and flows into the central nervous system causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis.
The word "polio" is derived from [Greek] or its more recent, from the "gray" and "spotting". Polio disease caused by infection with polio virus derived from the genus Enterovirus and the family Picorna viridae. The virus is transmitted through the feces (stool) or throat secretions of infected people. Polio virus entered through saliva causing infection.
This can happen easily if hands are contaminated or contaminated objects inserted into the mouth and throat and multiply in the gut. Proliferated for 4 to 35 days, then issued through the feces for several weeks later.
Types of Polio
1. Non-polio paralysis
Non-polio paralysis causes fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, and sensitive. Muscle cramps occur in the neck and back, the muscles are soft to the touch.
2. Polio paralysis spinal
Strain of poliovirus attacks the spinal cord, destroying the anterior horn cells which control movement of the trunk and limb muscles. Although this strain can cause permanent paralysis, less than one in 200 people will experience paralysis. Paralysis occurs most often found in the legs to the feet.
After the polio virus attacks the intestines, the virus will be absorbed by the capillary blood vessels in the intestinal walls and transported throughout the body. Polio virus attacks the spinal cord and motor neurons - which control the physical movement. At this period, like-iflu symptoms appear. However, in patients who have no immunity or has not been vaccinated, the virus usually will attack all parts of the trunk spinal cord and brain stem. This infection affects the central nervous system - spreading along nerve fibers. Along with the proliferation of virus in the central nervous system, the virus destroys motor neurons. Motor neurons do not have the ability to regenerate and muscles associated with it will not react to commands from the central nervous system. Paralysis in the legs causes the legs to be weak - a condition called acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Severe infection of the central nervous system can cause paralysis of the trunk and muscles of the thorax (chest) and abdomen (stomach), is called quadriplegia.
3. Bulbar polio
Caused by the lack of natural immunity to develop part of the brain stem. The brain stem contains motor neurons that regulate breathing and cranial nerves, which send signals to various nerves that control eye movement; trigeminal nerve and facial nerve associated with the cheeks, tear glands, gums, and muscles of the face; auditory nerves that regulate hearing; glossofaringeal nerve that helps the process of swallowing and the various functions of the esophagus; movement of the tongue and taste, and the nerves that send signals to the heart, intestines, lungs, and additional nerve that regulates the movement of the neck. Without a ventilator, bulbar polio can cause death. Five to ten percent of patients suffering from bulbar polio will die when their breathing muscles, can not work. Death usually occurs after damage to the cranial nerves are on duty to send 'command breathed' into the lungs. Patients can also die because of damage to the swallowing function; victim can 'sink' in his own secretions unless carried out or were subjected to tracheostomy suction to suck up the fluid that is secreted before it goes into the lungs
However, tracheostomy is also hard to do if the patient has been using the iron lung. This tool helps the weak lungs by increasing and reducing the air pressure inside the tube. If the air pressure increased, the lung will deflate, if air pressure is reduced, the lungs will expand. Thus the air pumped out of the lungs. A much more severe infection in the brain can lead to coma and death. Bulbar polio death rate ranges from 25-75% depending on the age of the patient. Until now, those who survive this type of polio have to live with an iron lung or respirator. Bulbar and spinal polio often attacked simultaneously and is a subclass of polio paralysis. Polio paralysis is permanent. Patients who recover may have near-normal body functions.
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1. How to Prevent Polio
2. Clinical Manifestation of Polio
3. How Polio Transmitted
4. Therapy of Polio