Free xml sitemap generator Medical and Health Information by Shaman: TONSILITIS

TONSILITIS

Today, Mbah Dukun Bagong Lee, the shaman medical, visit his blog. He reads comment from visitor. Please post about tonsillitis!!! Before mbah dukun explains about tonsillitis, we must know what tonsil is.




Definition
The palatine tonsil represents the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the head and neck region. Each tonsil has a compact body with a definite thin capsule on its deep surface. A stratified squamous epithelium lines the outer surface of the tonsil and invaginates deeply into the lymphoid tissue to form multiple crypts.

Anatomy of the tonsils
The tonsillar fossa is composed of three muscles: the palatoglossus muscle, the palatopharyngeal muscle, and the superior constrictor muscle. The palatoglossus muscle forms the anterior pillar and the palatopharyngeal muscle forms the posterior pillar. The tonsillar bed is formed by the superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx. The arterial blood supply of the tonsil enters primarily at the lower pole and is derived from the tonsillar branch of the dorsal lingual artery, the scending palatine artery and the tonsillar branch of the facial artery. The ascending pharyngeal artery and the lesser palatine artery also contribute to the vascular supply at the upper pole. Venous blood drains through the peritonsillar plexus around the capsule. The plexus then drains into the lingual and pharyngeal veins, which in turn drain into the internal jugular vein.
The nerve supply of the tonsillar region is through the tonsillar branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the descending branches of the lesser palatine nerves. The cause of referred otalgia with tonsillitis is through the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. The lymphatic drainage courses through the upper deep cervical lymph nodes.
What function do tonsils serve?
The tonsils are predominantly ß-cell organs with ßlymphocytes comprising 50% to 65% of all tonsillar lymphocytes. T-cell lymphocytes comprise approximately 40% of tonsillar lymphocytes and 3% are mature plasma cells. Tonsils are involved in inducing secretory immunity and regulating immunoglobulin production. The tonsils are favourably located to mediate immunologic protection of the upper aerodigestive tract as they are exposed to airborne antigens. Moreover, there are 10 to 30 crypts in each tonsil that are ideally suited to trapping foreign material and transporting it to the lymphoid follicles. The proliferation of ß cells in the germinal centres of the tonsils in response to antigenic signals is one of the most important tonsillar functions.
The human tonsils are immunologically most active between the ages of four and 10. Involution of the tonsils begins after puberty, resulting in a decrease in the ß-cell population and a relative increase in the ratio of T- to ß-cells.
Although the overall immunoglobulin production is reduced, there is still considerable ß-cell activity if seen in clinically healthy tonsils. The immunologic consequences of tonsillectomy are unclear. It is evident, however, that tonsillectomy does not result in a major immunologic deficiency.

What are tonsils and what is tonsillitis?

Tonsils are made of soft glandular tissue and are part of the immune system. You have two tonsils, one on either side at the back of the mouth. The picture shows normal non-infected tonsils.
Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils. A sore throat is the common symptom. In addition, you may also have a cough, fever, headache, feel sick, feel tired, find swallowing painful, and have swollen neck glands. The tonsils may swell and become red. Pus may appear as white spots on the tonsils.

What are the types of tonsillitis?
o Acute Tonsillitis – those affected usually have fever, sore throat, foul breath, difficulty or painful swallowing, and tender, enlarged lymph nodes. These symptoms usually resolve in 5 – 7 days, but may persist up to two weeks despite therapy
o Recurrent Tonsillitis – same symptoms, with multiple episodes over time
o Chronic Tonsillitis – chronic sore throat, bad breath, soreness with swallowing, perhaps, enlarged and tender neck lymph nodes
o Peritonsillar Abscess – severe sore throat, fever, bad breath, difficulty opening the mouth, usually with a muffled (hot potato) voice. This is due to infection around the tonsil, and typically occurs seven to ten days after the onset of symptoms

Etiology
Many viruses and many bacteria can cause tonsillitis. The most common include:
o Herpes simplex virus
o Streptococcus pyogenes – “strep throat”
o Epstein-Barr virus – the cause of infectious mononucleosis (mono)
o Adenovirus
o Cytomegalovirus
Bacteria cause between 15 and 30 percent of cases of acute tonsillitis. To determine the cause, many tests are commonly performed. While most episodes are viral in origin, only a throat culture helps determine whether the infection is viral or bacterial in origin. The symptoms and signs of viral versus bacterial tonsillitis are very similar. To the observer, the condition looks the same in most individuals.

Symptoms
The Following are the most common symptoms dor tonsillitis include  the following however, individuals may experience symptoms differently:
a.    Swollen, red tonsils (often coated with a yellow, gray, or white membrane)
b.    Blisters or painful ulcerated areas on the throat
c.    Sudden onset of sore throat
d.    Pain while swallowing
e.    Headache
f.    Malaise
g.    Chills
h.    Fever
i.    Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck or jaw area
 Also you will find these symptoms when repeated infections or irritation causes enlargement, You may notice:
a.    Difficulty breathing through the nose
b.    Mouth breathing
c.    A muffled sound to the voice (hot potato voice)
d.    Noisy breathing
e.    Snoring while sleeping
f.    A chronic sensation of drainage in the back of the nose and upper throat

What are the complications of tonsillitis?
The complications of tonsillitis may be classified into suppurative and nonsuppurative complications. The nonsuppurative complications include scarlet fever, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Suppurative complications include peritonsillar, parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal abscess formation.
Scarlet fever is secondary to acute streptococcal tonsillitis or pharyngitis with production of endotoxins by the bacteria. Clinical signs include an erythematous rash, severe lymphadenopathy, fever, tachycardia, and a yellow exudate overlying erythematous tonsils. Acute rheumatic fever is a syndrome that follows Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis for one to four weeks. Certain proteins found in heart muscle appear to be antigenetically similar to protein found on the streptococcus.
This is believed to be the method of infection of cardiac tissue. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis may be seen after both pharyngeal and skin infections. The typical patient develops an acute nephritic syndrome one to two weeks after a streptococcal infection. The infection is secondary to the presence of a common antigen in the glomerulus and in the streptococcus. Antibiotic therapy may not necessarily alter the natural history of glomerulonephritis. A tonsillectomy may be necessary to eliminate the source of infection.
Peritonsillar abscess most commonly occurs in patients with recurrent tonsillitis or in those with chronic tonsillitis who have been inadequately treated. The spread of infection is from the superior pole of the tonsil with pus formation between the tonsil bed and the tonsillar capsule. peritonsillar cellulitis and abscess respectively. This infection usually occurs unilaterally and the pain is quite severe.
Drooling is caused by odynophagia and dysphagia. Trismus is frequently present as a result of irritation of the pterygoid musculature by the pus and inflamma on. There is gross unilateral swelling of the palate and anterior pillar with displacement of the tonsil downward and medially with deviation of the uvula toward the opposite side. Cultures of peritonsillar abscess usually show a polymicrobial infection, both aerobic and anaerobic.
An abscess in the parapharyngeal space can develop if infection or pus drains from either the tonsils or from a peritonsillar abscess through the superior constrictor muscle. The abscess is located between the superior constrictor muscle and the deep cervical fascia and causes displacement of the tonsil on the lateral pharyngeal wall toward the midline.
Involvement of the adjacent pterygoid and paraspinal muscles with the inflammatory process results in trismus and a stiff neck. Progression of the infection of the abscess may spread down the carotid sheath into the mediastinum. As with most softtissue infections of the neck, lateral pharyngeal space infections are polymicrobial and reflect the oropharyngeal flora.
A retropharyngeal abscess may also result from a peritonsillar abscess. The source of the abscess is a chain of lymph nodes on either side of the midline in the retropharyngeal space. These lymph nodes receive drainage from the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and Eustachian tube. Children usually present with irritability, fever, dysphagia, muffled speech, noisy breathing, stiff neck, and cervical lymphadenopathy.


What is the treatment for tonsillitis?

•    Not treating is an option as many tonsil infections are mild and soon get better.
•    Have plenty to drink. It is tempting not to drink very much if it is painful to swallow.
•    You may become mildly dehydrated if you don't drink much, particularly if you also have a fever. Mild dehydration can make headaches and tiredness much worse.
•    ANALGESIC include Paracetamol or ibuprofen to remove pain, headache, and fever. To keep symptoms to a minimum it is best to take a dose at regular intervals as recommended on the packet of medication rather than 'now and then'. For example, take paracetamol four times a day until symptoms ease.
•    Aspirin gargles may ease the soreness. (There is little research evidence that confirms this. However, it is a popular treatment and may be worth a try.) Dissolve some soluble aspirin in water and gargle for 3-4 minutes. You can do this 3-4 times a day. Spit out the aspirin after gargling. (You should not give aspirin to children under 16.)
•    Other gargles, lozenges, and sprays that you can buy at pharmacies may help to soothe a sore throat. However, they do not shorten the illness.

What are indications for tonsil removed or tonsillectomy
Tonsillectomy is still commonly performed in children, occasionally in adults. The actual
procedure performed does not vary with the age of the patient.
Reasons tonsils are removed – tonsillectomy -- include:
A. Infection
1. Recurrent tonsillitis (more than seven per year or five per year for two years or three per year for three years).
2. Persistent, chronic tonsillitis.
3. Recurrent otitis media unresponsive to medical or previous placement of PETubes.
4. Chronic/recurrent nasopharyngitis.
5. Chronic/recurrent sinusitis.

B. Obstruction
1. Hypertrophy with obstruction unresponsive to antibiotics with or without obstructive apnea, severe
dysphagia, and failure to thrive.
-If adenoids enlarged only.
-If tonsils enlarged only.
-If tonsils and adenoides are enlarged.
2. Nasal obstruction with speech abnormalities, orodental abnormalities.

C. Miscellaneous

1. Recurrent peritonsillar abscess or peritonsillar abscess with previous history of recurrent or persistent
tonsillitis.
2. Unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy.
3. Hemorrhagic tonsillitis.
4. Chronic tonsillolithiasis.


Why are adenoids removed – adenoidectomy?
Reasons adenoids are removed – adenoidectomy -- include:
1.    Often removed at the same setting as tonsils in children with chronic upper airway obstruction;
2.    Chronic mouth breathing;
3.    Chronic, recurrent sinus infections in children, under age 10;
4.    Abnormalities in dental growth – high arched palate;
5.    Need for more than one set of eardrum tubes for recurrent ear infections

About tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy
1.    The surgery is performed under general anesthesia, that is, the patient is put to sleep for  short time
2.    The duration of surgery is generally 20 – 30 minutes, and is performed in an outpatient surgical facility or hospital operating room
3.    The adenoids are removed through the back of the throat, with the surgeon seated at the patient’s head. No external skin incisions are made.
Ue a technique called Coblation® Tonsillectomy. I feel this technique results in less discomfort after surgery. Most patients resume a normal diet in 3 – 5 days after surgery, compared to 7 – 10 days using the outdated electrocautery technique.


refferences
1. http://www.homoeopathyclinic.com/articles/diseases/Tonsillitis.pdf
2. ttp://www.woodlandsmedicalcentre.com/Portals/0/Tonsilitis.pdf
3. http://farm3.static.flickr.com
4. http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/diagnosis/2003/02_February/tonsilitis.pdf

20 comments:

  1. nice posting... full of learning and information about tonsils

    ReplyDelete
  2. Wouwww... It's really great!! ^_^

    Nice... :)

    ReplyDelete
  3. Salam kenal mbah,numpang baca baca

    ReplyDelete
  4. prikitiewwww...
    mantab gan artikel nya..

    ijin nyimak ya Mbah..

    hehheheheheheh

    ReplyDelete
  5. tanks for your information, bicause now my sun is an infectied of the tonsils too.

    ReplyDelete
  6. AaaaRRgggghhh...
    KabUr..!!
    MenaKutkan..
    Hehe

    ReplyDelete
  7. he he he, i wouldn't like to see this pic, scary....

    ReplyDelete
  8. makasih pak dokter infonya, gambarnya menakutkan ni hhheheh
    salam kenal dari ediNesia

    ReplyDelete
  9. mbah coba dibahas masalah penyakit ginjal, spilis, hiv thanklah bah infonya.....

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. oh sudah dibahas, silakan dilihat di label Interna dan dermato-venereology. terima kasih

      Delete
  10. maksih mbah wejangannya...!
    sangat bermanfaat sekali...!

    ReplyDelete
  11. this is really a great help info, especially to me, having an acute tonsillitis as my doctors findings, it is better to drink a lot of water.

    ReplyDelete
  12. thank you for sharing ur info with us

    ReplyDelete
  13. my mother has ever had this tonsilitis...
    the pic looks scary...hihi

    ReplyDelete
  14. tonsilitis itu amandel ya?, baru tau kali ini aye.. :D

    ReplyDelete

Creative Commons License
Original Content by Medical Health Shaman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at http://mbahdukunbagong.blogspot.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://mbahdukunbagong.blogspot.com.
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...